|Restoration of Degraded Forests (JFM & Non-JFM Mode)||196650 Ha||210405 Ha|
|ANR||138000 Ha||155045 Ha|
|Block Plantation||39650 Ha||40934 Ha|
|Economic species||8308.50 Ha|
|Fuel & Fodder species||8781 Ha|
|Bamboo plantations||2536 Ha|
|NTFP species||21,317.50 Ha|
|AR Teak (Non JFM)||19000 Ha||14417 Ha|
Assisted Natural Regeneration
Block Plantation of NTFP Species
Artificial Regeneration of Teak
Planting stocks will be produced in permanent and decentralized temporary nurseries. Decentralized nurseries are established and managed by the VSSs, one for every two to three VSSs willing to establish a decentralized nursery. The selection criteria for nursery sites are distance to plantation sites, water availability during the dry season and willingness of the VSS general body. The responsibilities and rights of nursery management are completely vested to the VSS concerned after it acquires necessary skills and techniques for managing the nursery and producing required numbers of planting stock. Technical trainings on how to manage the nursery and produce planting stocks were imparted at FMU level.
Silvicultural operations to improve the structure of forest stands and promote natural regeneration were done by VSS in the identified forest areas inside their JFM area. The operations included climber cutting, pruning, removal of dead and dried trees and enrichment planting by indigenous species. The removed tree growth were properly distributed among the VSS members for their consumption.
Rehabilitation of Degraded Forests
a) Soil and Moisture Conservation measures: Possible soil and moisture conservation measures such as gully plugging, contour bunding, staggered contour trench, saucer pits with trench ridge/trench mound depending upon slope categories. Gully plugging work consisted of:
i) gully head protection work to prevent further development of the gully head; and
ii) a series of check dams to moderate slopes of the gully and eventually to mitigate scouring from the gully slopess
b) Assisted natural regeneration (ANR): ANR was carried out to artificially facilitate natural regeneration on degraded forests where rootstocks are still available. It included singling coppice shoots, removal of high stumps and climbers and tree planting in blank areas. In order to augment incentives of the VSS members concerned, species raising economic benefits in the early years (NTFP and medicinal plants) were suggested as per the site conditions.
c) Block plantation: The block plantation aimed to produce specific timber/NTFP products and/or maintain vegetative cover for soil and water conservation. The productive plantations conceived in the Project are
i) economic plantation consisting of timber species;
ii) fuel wood and fodder plantation with fast growing species;
iii) bamboo plantation; and iv) NTFP plantations. Saucer pits and half moon trench ridges were made at planting sites in order to maintain moisture for the plants.
VSS members protect forest blocks within their JFM area from forest fire. The fire protection will be carried out in two ways:
i) construction and maintenance of fire lines in January before the dry season; and
ii) regular watching and patrolling. The VSS was paid for the construction of fire lines as well as patrolling bamboo and NTFP plantation during the Project period.
Forest Management under non-JFM Mode
Consolidation and Demarcation of Forest Boundaries
The boundaries of forest blocks including reserve forests, demarcated protected forests, village forests and sanctuaries were demarcated on the ground on a priority basis to prevent further encroachment. The block boundaries were cleared using a 5 m wide strip and cairn pillars installed/ maintained along the boundaries.
Construction and Improvement of Permanent Nursery
Existing permanent nurseries within the Project area were upgraded by providing irrigation facilities (deep well, pumping facilities, pipeline, etc.), working sheds, and shade nets in accordance with the site specific requirement. High Tech nurseries along with mist chamber were created in Angul, Rayagada and Rourkela Divisions to produce and supply root trainer seedlings.
In order to improve the standing stock and stand structure as well as augment the biodiversity of forest blocks, silvicultural operations was carried out in Reserve Forest blocks that have sufficient standing stock.
In forest blocks outside the JFM areas, intensively managed teak plantations were established in open forest of contiguous patches. This has been undertaken by FMUs. The sites for plantation were selected on the basis of valid working plan and taking consideration of
i) accessibility to the sites;
ii) topographic conditions suitable for forest operation such as plantation, maintenance and harvesting;
iii) soil conditions suitable for teak plantation.
Fire lines will be cleared to protect teak plantation established by FMUs concerned in January well before the dry season.